The most effective way to reach pests in their most remote hiding places is through fumigations, the use of poisonous gases to kill pests in an enclosed area. To be effective, fumigants must reach target pests as gases. A fumigant is : a Gas that is lethal to organisms ( insects, animals, plants, fungi) if they are exposes to a sufficient concentration for a sufficient length of time, fumigants are wide spectrum” pesticides, kill all species of arthropods and rodents that likely to found in a building, gain storage etc.
For carrying out fumigation highly skilled, experienced, and licensed operator are required since all fumigants are extremely hazardous to use. Fumigants are Restricted Use pesticides because of their high acute toxicity, primarily by inhalation.
Treatment of import consignments:
As per plant quarantine regulations, the commodities covered under Schedule- VI of PQ order 2003 expect propagtive plant material such as sprouts/ sapalings/ cuttings/ bud wood/ flowers ect., will allowed imported subject to offshore ( at the port of shipment) treatment and where as commodities covered under schedule- VII , expect timber / wooden logs, will be allowed import subject to inspection and if necessary after treatment at the port of entry ( on-shore treatment).
Treatment if export consignments:
Many countries require particular goods exported from india to be treated prior to shipment in order to satisfy their own quarantine requirement s. As a result, Dte PPQAS is often requested to issue phytosanitary certificate for certain consignments endorsing that quarantine requirements, such as fumigation, have been met with. Further that wood packaging material including dunnage shall be required to be appropriately treated with methyl bromide and marked in compliance with ISPM-15.
Need of phytosanitary Treatment (Fumigation)
It as an obligation under Article IV of IPPC for export equipments for disinfestations and requirements of importing country, any escape may lead to
** Interception of quarantine pest
** Non compliance
** Ban on export
** Lose of reputation internationally
** Heavy Penalty
** Loss of revenue
Phytosanitary Treatment is required for
** Fumigation to plant and plant material
** Fumigation of container
** Fumigation of wood packaging material
** Other packing material
The major target commodities for which the treatment can be provided are
** Food grains (cereals and oil seeds)
** Timber and unfinished furniture
** Fresh fruits, vegetables flowers
** Betel nuts
** Planting material including seeds
** Production sites and Godowns
** Miscellaneous like cloths, carpets, dry plant materials etc.
Advantages of phytosanitary treatment are
** Rapid action/ quick action against the pest present in the area of treatment
** High penetrating in to packaging and commodity
** High toxicity to broad spectrum of insects
** Effective against all life stages of the pest / ovicidal
** No toxic residue
Two types of Fumigation we are offering :
1. Fumigation with Methyl Bromide
2. Fumigation with Aluminium Phosphide
Methyl Bromide Fumigation:
Methyl bromide is the most widely used fumigant for quarantine purpose. It is favoured in many countries for plant quarantine because of its reputation for having:
** Good penetration ability
** Rapid action
** High toxicity to a broad spectrum of insects and similar pests.
Aluminium Phosphide fumigation:
Most of grains are stores short and long term by two methods. They are bagged grain and bulk gain storage. In case of bagged grain, warehouse keepers are usually pilling up them as stacks in the warehouse. Each stack may be small and as big as 10,000 tons. When insects are found infesting grain in the stack, fumigation must be performed to eliminate them.
Advantages of ALP fumigation :
Effective on quality : No adverse effective on quality, organoleptic property, and germination and end-use parameters; no tainting; Low residue levels.
Application aspects: Easy to store, handle and apply; Devices to detect at hygienic levels available;
Not applicable for vacuum fumigation corrodes metals especially copper.
Entomological aspects: Large differences in susceptibility between species/developmental stages; insects develop resistance quickly; ineffective low temperatures; longer exposure period necessary.
Financial aspects: Very economical: Very economical especially for routine treatments.
Toxicological aspects: No cumulative toxicity
Environmental aspects: Rapidly degraded in the atmosphere.